Sonderforschungsbereich 768 - Subproject C1: Integration of external stakeholders into the cycle-oriented design of PSS-based business models

Initial Situation

Companies lack clear understanding of how to successfully provide PSS. For a business model based on PSS to be successful, all involved stakeholders need to be integrated into the design of the business model. Requirements and needs of the stakeholders need to be obtained and transferred into an economically viable business model. Existing approaches to develop and model business models:

  • are not formal enough for PSS
  • do not consider the service component
  • do not allow simulation or animation of models
  • do not include and illustrate financial flows, requirements, or customer value.

There is a need for methods to model and develop PSS-based business models.

Project Aim

The objective of subproject C1 is the cycle-oriented integration of external stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, and external service providers into the development of PSS-based business models.


A process model for the creation and adaption of PSS-based business models is developed. To support this process model, an IT-based system is developed to integrate external stakeholders. In order to reach these objectives, subproject C1 conducts case studies with PSS-providers to study how PSS-based business models are currently designed and the problems PSS-providers are confronted with. The process model as well as the IT-based system are iteratively developed and evaluated by expert workshops and experiments.

Work Packages:

  • Analysis of existing approaches for designing PSS business models
  • Analysis of stakeholder inputs for designing PSS business models
  • Draft and adaption of an approach for developing PSS business models
  • Development of a tool for integrating external stakeholders
  • Evaluation of the approach and tool


Comprehensive understanding of stakeholder integration into the development and adaption of PSS-based business models:

  • Key steakholders, stakeholder integration methods, types and characteristics of stakeholder input required for the development and adaption of PSS-based business models.
  • Existing approaches and challenges in the design of PSS-based business models.
  • Process model for developing PSS-based business models.
  • Tool support for the integration of external stakeholder and the design of individual and profitable business models.


Scientific Partners



Business Partners

Transfer projects with B/S/H Bosch und Siemens Hausgeräte and MAN

Research Funding

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

Additional Information


Prof. Dr. Helmut Krcmar
Dr. Markus Böhm
Jörg Weking (Contact Person)
Sebastian Hermes